In modern medicine they have been largely replaced by the benzodiazepines, primarily because they can induce tolerance, physical dependence and serious withdrawal symptoms.
Nevertheless, certain barbiturates are still employed as anticonvulsants (phenobarbital) and to induce anesthesia (thiopental).
Antihistamines are commonly used for the treatment of various allergic diseases, and can be taken in oral, nasal spray, eye drop, and injected forms.
Antihistamines for Hay Fever (Allergic Rhinitis)Newer oral antihistamines, such as Xyzal (levocetirizine), Zyrtec (cetirizine), Allegra (fexofenadine), Clarinex (desloratadine) and Clarinex (loratadine), are very effective therapies for the treatment of hay fever.
Antihistamines are used in the treatment of allergic reactions, colds, hay fever, hives, and insect bites and stings.
Some antihistamines may also be helpful in reducing anxiety, inducing sleep, or at preventing or treating motion sickness.
The representatives of this group are: Nonbenzodiazepine “Z-drugs” sedative-hypnotics are drugs that differ in structure from benzodiazepines, but acts on a subset of the benzodiazepine receptor family known as BZ1.
The representatives of this group are: Benzodiazepines are the most widely used group of sedative drugs.
Due to their safety and improved effectiveness, they have largely replaced barbiturates as drugs of choice in the treatment of anxiety.
Although sedatives do not relieve pain in themselves, they can be a useful adjunct to analgesics in preparing patients for surgery, and are commonly given to patients before they are anaesthetized, or before other highly uncomfortable and invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, colonoscopy or MRI.
They increase tractability and compliance of children or troublesome or demanding patients.