This article collects evidences that place a lower limit on the age of the Universe beyond the 6,000 to 10,000 years asserted by most Young Earth creationists (YECs) and the literalist Ussher chronology.
All of this evidence supports deep time: the idea, considered credible by scientists since the early 1800s, that the Earth (and the Universe) is millions or billions of years old.
Calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions—the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the Solar System—are 4.567 billion years old, giving an age for the Solar System and an upper limit for the age of Earth.
It is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and the meteorites.
measurement, measuring, mensuration, measure - the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule; "the measurements were carefully done"; "his mental measurings proved remarkably accurate" techniques to precisely measure the age of the eruptions of the Kalkarindji volcanic province where lavas covered an area of more than 2 million square kilometers in the Northern Territory and Western Australia.
material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples.
All of these fragments are referred to as Pyroclasts = hot, broken fragments. Depending on size, tephra can be classified as bombs. Rock formed by accumulation and cementation of tephra called a pyroclastic rock or tuff.
There are three standard creationist responses: First, creationists assert that current rates (Y) are different than past rates.
It is possible that these rates changed — but under uniformitarianism, which is necessary for science to function, we must assume that rates did not change unless there is evidence for this change.
Different magma types behave differently as lava flows, depending on their temperature, viscosity, and gas content.
Pyroclastic Material If the magma has high gas content and high viscosity, the gas will expand in an explosive fashion and break the liquid into clots that fly through the air and cool along their path through the atmosphere.